Laws of the game (2017)
LAWS OF THE GAME (OUTDOOR AND INDOOR)
Revised November 1996; Amended November 2001; Amended November 2002
Amended November 2003; Amended November 2005; Amended November 2006
Amended 2007 Amended 2009 Amended 2011. Amended November 2013. Amended November 2015.
No changes for 2017
It should be appreciated that no Code of Laws governing a game has yet achieved such perfection as to cope with every situation. The Code of Laws governing bowls is no exception. Unusual incidents not definitely provided for in Laws frequently occur. It is well, therefore, to remember that the Laws have been framed in the belief that true sportsmanship will prevail; that in the absence of any express Law common sense will find a way to complete a happy solution to a knotty problem.
The reference in these Laws to he, or his do not imply male exclusivity, but apply equally to both males and females.
LAWS OF THE GAME (OUTDOOR)
1 "Skip" means the player who, for the time being, is in charge of the head on behalf of the Rink.
2 "Rink" means a combination of three players, whose positions in order of playing are named Lead, Second, and Skip.
3 "Team" means any agreed number of Rinks.
4 "Bowl in Course" means a bowl from the time of its delivery until it comes to rest.
5 "End" means the placing of the mat, delivering the jack and all bowls of all the players in the same direction on a rink, and determining the result of the head.
6 "Head" means the jack and such bowls as have come to rest within the boundary of the rink and are not dead.
7 "Mat Line" means the edge of the mat which is nearest to the front ditch. From the centre of the mat line all necessary measurements to jack or bowls shall be taken.
8 "Master Bowl" means a bowl which has been approved by the World Bowls Board as having the minimum bias required, as well as in all other respects complying with the Laws of the Game and is engraved with the words "Master Bowl".
9 "Jack High" means the nearest portion of the bowl referred to is in line with and at the same distance from the mat line as the nearest portion of the jack.
10 "Pace of Green" means the number of seconds taken by a bowl from the time of delivery to the moment it comes to rest approximately 27 m from the mat line.
II THE GREEN, DITCH, BANK AND DIVISION OF THE GREEN
1 The Standard Green - Area and Surface
The Standard Green shall be of not less than 34m nor more than 40m in length in the direction of play; it shall be level and shall have a natural grass playing surface or a synthetic surface approved by the English Bowling Federation, and shall be provided with suitable boundaries in the form of a ditch and bank.
2 Play on the Standard Green
All County and National finals and all inter-county matches (other than the Durham Centenary Trophy play-off matches) shall be played on the Standard Green.
3 The Ditch
The Green shall be surrounded by a ditch which shall have an internal surface which is non injurious to bowls, and shall be free of obstacles, The ditch shall be not less than 200 mm nor more than 380 mm wide, and shall not be less than 50 mm nor more than 200 mm deep below the level of the Green.
4 The Bank
The bank shall be not less than 230mm above the level of the Green, preferably upright, or alternatively at an angle of not more than 35 degrees from the perpendicular. The surface of the face of the bank shall be non-injurious to bowls, and no steps likely to interfere with play shall be cut in the bank,
5 Division of the Green
The green shall be divided into spaces called rinks, each not more than 6.4 m nor less than 4.8 m wide. They shall be numbered consecutively, the centre line of each rink being marked on the bank at each end by a pin or other suitable device. The four corners of the rinks shall be marked by narrow strips of suitable white material fixed to the face of the bank. The corner strips may be connected by a string drawn tightly across the surface of the Green, If used the string shall be of such a thickness that it cannot influence the movement of a bowl or jack and must not be lifted while a bowl is in motion, The outer boundary mark of an outside rink shall be placed at least 61 cm from the side ditch. White strips or discs shall be fixed on the side bank to indicate clear distances of 2 m, 4 m, and 25 m respectively from the ditch on the line of play.
6 Permissible Variation of Laws 11.1 and 11.5
(a) A county association is permitted to use a green shorter than 34m in the direction of play for domestic games within the county.
(b) A County Association is permitted to divide a green into rinks with a minimum width of 4m for domestic games within the county.
(c) County bowling associations may dispense with the use of boundary strings for domestic games.
(d) The words “domestic games” used within this section shall be construed to mean any game which is not a county final, a National final, or an Inter-County match, such "domestic games" shall, therefore, include any round of a National Competition which is not a County final.
III BOWLS, JACK, MAT
1 "A Set of Bowls” means four bowls, all of a matched set, which are of the same manufacture, and are of the same size, weight, colour bias, and where applicable, serial number and engraving; only bowls from the same set may be used
2 (a) Composition bowls shall have a bias of not less than that of the master-bowl.
(b) The re-stamping of composition bowls is dispensed with for all games played under Federation Laws and Rules; composition bowls must, however, bear a clearly legible WB/WBB/IBB or BIBC stamp dated 1985 or later.
3 Non-composition bowls must bear a clearly legible WB/WBB/IBB or BIBC stamp of a date not earlier than the date of the year in which they are being used.
4 Any objection to the bias of bowls must be made not later than the sixth end of a match.
5 In all inter-County matches the umpire shall examine all bowls for stamping prior to the commencement of play; in the absence of an umpire the skips will be responsible for examining their opponents' bowls.
6 In all competitions if no umpire is present at a county match or competition, players must examine their opponents' bowls prior to play.
7 (a) Players may be permitted to temporarily affix not more than one set of adhesive markings to each of their bowls in any competition match; any such temporary markings shall be regarded as part of the bowls for all purposes under these Laws.
(b) No other marking except for the decorative painting of dimples and rings or device other than those incorporated by the bowls manufacturer shall be allowed.
8 The jack shall be made of white or yellow earthenware or other material approved by the Federation, and be of a diameter of not less than 63 mm, nor more than 64 mm, and shall weigh not less than 225 gm nor more than 285 gm.
9 The mat shall be of a definite size. namely 600 mm long and 360 mm wide.
IV ARRANGEMENT OF PLAY
In a Rinks match:
(a) The lead whose turn it is to cast the jack shall place the mat correctly.
(b) He shall cast the jack according to his skip's instructions, and whilst standing on the mat give instructions to his skip for centring the jack,
(c) After delivering his bowls he shall remain behind the mat until both seconds have delivered all their bowls.
In a Pairs match:
(d) Laws IV.1 (a) and IV.1 (b) also apply to the lead in a pairs match.
(e) The lead shall not visit the head, and shall remain behind the lie of the mat until both leads have delivered all their bowls.
(f) He shall take charge of the head only when his skip is in possession of the rink.
(g) He shall inform his skip if the head has been altered, and direct his skip's play accordingly.
(h) When his skip is at the playing or mat end the lead at the opposite end shall remove any bowl that is bowled into the ditch or is moved there by the effects of play. If the jack is moved into the ditch the lead shall indicate its position with an appropriate marker and ensure that the jack is not disturbed.
(i) He shall agree the shots and inform his skip of the score so that it may be recorded on the scorecard.
(j) He shall prove his claim for shots by measuring, if necessary; his claim to any shot shall be agreed before the bowl is moved, and he shall allow the opposing lead the opportunity of measuring also.
(k) If both leads cannot agree, they shall call their skips to adjudicate.
a) The second shall bowl strictly to his skip's instructions.
(b) He shall not visit the head, and shall remain behind the lie of the mat until both seconds have delivered all their bowls.
(c) He shall take charge of the head only when his skip is in possession of the rink.
(d) He shall inform his skip if the head has been altered, and direct his skip's play accordingly.
(e) When his skip is at the playing or mat end the second at the opposite end shall remove any bowl that is bowled into the ditch or is moved there by the effects of play. If the jack is moved into the ditch the second shall indicate its position with an appropriate marker and ensure that the jack is not disturbed.
(f) He shall agree the shots and record them on the scorecard, and inform his skip of the score.
(g) He shall prove his claim for shots by measuring, if necessary; his claim to any shot shall be agreed before the bowl is moved, and he shall allow the opposing second the opportunity of measuring also.
(h) If both seconds cannot agree, they shall call their skips to adjudicate.
(a) The skip shall take charge of his Rink, and his instructions must be obeyed by the other players.
(b) He shall control the play, but he may delegate this duty to his lead or second.
(c) He may also delegate some or all of the duties of his second to his lead.
(d) When he is at the head he shall remove any bowl that is bowled into the ditch or is moved there by the effects of play. If the jack is moved into the ditch the skip shall indicate its position with an appropriate marker and ensure that the jack is not disturbed.
(e) The two skips shall be the judges of all disputed shots, and whether the jack or a bowl is in or out of play, and when they agree their decision is final. If they cannot agree they shall call the umpire, whose decision is final. In the absence of an appointed umpire a neutral person, mutually agreed, shall adjudicate.
4 Non-playing Captain
When on duty, the non-playing captain shall:
(a) Wear match-dress.
(b) Be responsible, with his opposite number for drawing of rinks as described in Law V.1
c) Ensure that his players are in match dress and in attendance at the green before the agreed time of commencement of the match.
d) Ensure that his players have their bowls on the green for inspection not later than twenty minutes before the time of commencement of the match.
(e) On no account go on to the green; all his duties during the match shall be done from the bank.
(f) Carry out any consultations with his team through the skips only, but on no account may he interfere while an end is in progress.
V BEFORE PLAY STARTS
1 Before a team match starts the opposing captains, with the names of their own players written on their scorecards, shall draw for rinks. With scorecards facing downwards each captain shall mark the rink numbers on the reverse of the opposing captain's scorecards.
2. TOSSING FOR JACK
(1)Before Play Starts
(a) In a Team Championship match the home team captain will toss a coin in the presence of the away team captain with the latter making the call. The winner of the toss shall have the choice of jack which shall apply to all rinks.
(b) In an Individual Competition the home skip in a rink or pairs match and the home competitor in a singles match shall toss a coin, with the away skip or singles player making the call. The winner of the toss having the choice of jack.
(2) Extra End(s)
(a) In the event of a draw at the completion of the prescribed number of ends in a Team Play-off Match or a Team Championship Final, extra end(s) shall be played on all rinks. For every extra end(s) the home team captain will toss a coin with the away team captain making the call, the winner of the toss having the choice of jack which shall apply to all rinks.
(b) In the event of a draw at the completion of the prescribed number of ends in an Individual Competition the home skip in a rink or pairs match shall toss a coin, with the away skip making the call. The winner of the toss shall have the choice of jack.
(c ) Any extra end(s) shall be played from where the last end ceased with the mat placed as per Law VI Para 1.”
3. Before the start of play in any competition or match two trial ends may be played, but not more than one each way; trial ends are not a part of the competition or match. Prior to the start of a competition or match, or a series of competitions or matches played on the same day, no roll up will be permitted.
4. Before the start of any competition or match all mobile phones to be switched off and not used during play.
VI STARTING A MATCH
1 The mat must be placed lengthwise and centred in a line with the centrepins marking the rink, with the front edge 2 m from the ditch for the first end, and not less than 2 m nor more than 4 m from the ditch in any subsequent end, including an extra end. Where groundsheets are in use they shall be placed with the back edge 2 m from the ditch; the mat at the first end and every subsequent end shall be placed with its front edge being 2 m from the ditch, and at the back edge of the sheet.
2 (a) The lead who is to play first shall cast the jack after the mat has been placed in position, and shall ensure that the opposing lead has the opportunity of seeing the cast and watching the course of the jack from a position near the mat.
(b) The minimum cast shall be 23m from the centre of the mat line measured in a straight line along the rink centre line to the nearest point of the jack.
(c) The maximum cast shall be to within 2m of the edge of the green. If the jack is cast over the maximum it shall be moved out and placed with its nearest point 2 m from the edge of the green measured in a straight line along the rink centre line. (i.e. the jack shall be placed at the end of a 2 m measure).
(d) If the jack is cast from an improper stance on the mat, as defined in Law XI.1, it shall be returned; the opposing player may move and place the mat in accordance with Law VI.1 and cast the jack, but may not bowl first.
(e) If the lead in one cast fails to set the mark i.e. casts less than 23m from the mat line centre to the nearest point of the jack, measured in a straight line after the jack has been centred, or into the ditch or off the rink, the opposing player is then entitled to move and place the mat in accordance with Law VI.1 and to cast the jack, but may not bowl first. If he then fails to set the mark the mat may be moved, still in accordance with Law VI.1 and the jack be returned as often as required, and cast alternately until a mark is set, subject to the original penalty.
(f) If the jack is cast from a mat placed with the mat line over 4m or under 2 m from the ditch, the opposing player is then entitled to move and place the mat in accordance with Law VI.1 and to cast the jack, but may not bowl first.
(g) If the jack is cast to a position where any part of it is on or over the side boundary of the rink, it shall be returned and the opposing player shall cast the jack,
h) When the jack comes to rest within the permitted limits it shall be centred in a direct line with the rink centrepins.
3 After the position of the jack has been set the mat must not be moved until the end is completed, but if it is displaced by a player, it may be straightened by the following player before he delivers his bowl.
4 After the jack has been played to it shall not be touched or interfered with in any manner otherwise than by the effects of play until the result of the end has been determined. Any objection to the mat position, or to the length of the cast, must be made before the first bowl has been delivered.
5 Where a green is used that is shorter than 30 metres in the direction of play - as permitted by Law II.6a - the minimum cast of the jack may be set at 21 metres from the front edge of the mat.
1 In the event of a tied (no score) or a dead end, the first to play in the tied or dead end shall again play first. In all ends subsequent to the first the winner of the preceding scoring end shall play first.
2 The leads should normally deliver their bowls alternately, as should the players who succeed them, except in the event of circumstances compelling two players to play against three.
3 In the event of two players playing against three the order of play shall be lead, lead, second (repeated as necessary), to be followed by the skips.
4 The party in possession of the rink for the time being shall not be disturbed by their opponents, except to challenge the placement of the mat or the cast of the jack. As soon as a bowl stops running the possession of the rink is transferred to the other party.
5 A player shall not bowl before his opponent's bowl has come to rest; where he does so his bowl may be stopped and returned for it to be delivered again.
6 The players of each Rink must stand at least 2 m behind the jack, or behind the mat at the playing end, excepting the skip when he is giving instructions to a player on the mat; as soon as the bowl is delivered the skip must retire to at least 2 m behind the jack.
7 It shall not be an offence for the skip or a singles player to carry a bowl up the green when inspecting the head; if any such bowl so carried be dropped or placed on the green beyond 2m of the mat line it will be declared dead. If any such bowl disturbs the head the opponents may claim all the estimated shots held, or declare the end dead and replay it.
8 The last player shall remove the mat to the bank, but not until the last bowl to be delivered has come to rest.
9 Players may alter the order in which they play, but only after the completion of an end, other than a dead end, and before the commencement of the next end.
10 No player shall leave the rink without the permission of his skip.
11 When the score has been agreed at the conclusion of an end all the players at the head shall assist in removing the bowls back ready to start a new end.
12 The scorecard shall be kept by the marker in singles play, who shall ensure that the names of both players are entered upon it. The marker shall record the score as agreed by the players and inform them of the total scores at each end. The scorecard shall be checked and signed by both players at the end of the match. and be handed in to the person responsible.
13 The skips shall each keep a scorecard in a pairs match. They shall ensure that the names of all players are entered upon it and that the agreed score is recorded both for and against after each end, and check to ensure that the record is correct. The scorecard shall be checked and signed by both skips at the end of the match, and be handed in to the person responsible.
14 The seconds shall each keep a scorecard in a Rink match. They shall ensure that the names of all players are entered upon it, and that the agreed score is recorded both for and against after each end, and check to ensure that the record is correct. The skip may delegate this duty to the lead if he so wishes. The scorecard shall be checked and signed by both skips at the end of the match, and be handed in to the person responsible.
VIII MOVEMENT OF BOWLS
1 When a bowl during its normal course and before it has passed the jack is disturbed by: -
(a) The party to whom it belongs, it shall be counted dead and removed from the green.
(b) An opponent or neutral party, it shall be played over again.
(c) If a disturbed bowl touches either the jack or another bowl so as to alter the result of an end, it shall be declared a dead end and shall be replayed in the same direction.
2 When a bowl in its original course has passed the jack and, still being in motion, is disturbed by:-
(a) The party to which it belongs, it shall be counted dead.
(b) An opponent or neutral party, the player's party may choose to let it lie where it comes to rest, or have the bowl played over again.
3 When a bowl which has come to rest is interfered with (except by the effects of play) by: -
(a) the party to whom it belongs, the opposing party shall have the option of:-
(i) Letting the bowl remain where it rests;
(ii) Restoring the bowl as near as possible to its former position;
(iii) Declaring the bowl dead;
(iv) Or declaring the end dead.
(b) An opponent or neutral party, it shall be replaced as near as possible to its original position.
4 A bowl, which runs off the green or is driven into the ditch by the effects of play shall be counted dead, and shall be removed to the bank.
5 If any part of a bowl comes to rest on or over the dividing line it shall be considered dead and shall be removed and placed on the bank.
6 Any bowl which runs against or strikes the bank or edge of the green and rebounds on to the green within the boundaries of the rink shall be declared dead and shall be removed and placed on the bank.
7 A bowl, which in its normal course, returns to the rink after crossing the dividing line shall be in play.
IX MOVEMENT OF JACK
1 When the jack, while at rest or in motion, is disturbed by:-
a) One of the players, the opposite party may replace it in its original position or allow it to remain as it is, or declare a dead end which shall be replayed in the same direction.
(b) A neutral person or by a bowl not in play, or wind or other unforeseen circumstances, the parties shall come to an agreement as to the jack's original position, otherwise it shall be declared a dead end which shall be replayed in the same direction.
2 If, during the course of play the jack is moved, and it runs against the bank or edge of the green and rebounds on to the green within the boundaries of the rink, play shall continue as if the jack had never left the green.
3 If the jack is forced into the ditch by the effects of play it shall be deemed to be live and played to, its position being indicated by a suitable marker placed above it on the face of the bank. If accidentally interfered with, the opposing party shall replace the jack as nearly as possible to its original position.
4 If, by the effects of play, any part of the jack comes to rest on or over the dividing line of the rink or over the bank, it shall be declared a dead end which shall be replayed in the same direction.
5 If, during the course of play the jack rebounds within the confines of the rink to a distance of less than 20 m measured in a direct line from the centre of the mat line to the nearest point of the jack in its rebounded position, it shall be declared a dead end which shall be replayed in the same direction.
6 In the event of the jack being damaged it shall be replaced and the end be replayed.
X RESULTS OF AN END
1 When the last bowl has come to rest half a minute shall elapse if either party desires before the shots are counted.
2 Neither the jack nor the bowls shall be moved until each party has agreed the result of the end, except where a bowl has to be moved to allow another bowl to be measured.
3 If a bowl requiring to be measured is deemed likely to fall, it shall be secured by the best means available by a player or the umpire on duty. Likewise, where a bowl is resting on another bowl, which prevents its measurement, the best means available shall be taken to secure the bowl in its position, by a player or umpire on duty, whereupon the other bowl shall be removed; the same course shall be followed where more than two bowls are involved. The use of a hand or finger for these purposes is prohibited.
4 No bowl shall count which lies more than 2 m from the jack.
5 If, during a measure or before the result of an end is agreed upon, either jack or bowl(s) are disturbed by a player, the opponents may claim the number of shots in dispute.
6 If, before the score has been agreed, a bowl falls naturally without any physical interference, it shall remain and be counted in its new position.
7 Measuring by stick, foot, or hand is prohibited (except for the 2 m measure). All measuring must be done by a bowls measure, callipers, or feeler gauge. The placing of a finger on the jack or bowl to be measured constitutes a disturbance, and the opponents may claim the shots in question or declare it a dead end.
8 No measuring shall be allowed until the end has been played out, except that an immediate measure may be made in the circumstances detailed in Laws VI.1, VI.2(b) and (c), IX.5, and XI.7.
9 When, at the conclusion of an end, a tie for the first shot occurs, or, if there is not a bowl within 2 m of the jack, it shall be a tied end, and in a match of ends be counted as a played end. The player who cast the jack in the tied end shall again cast the jack in the following end (unless it be an extra end).
10 In the event of a draw at the completion of the prescribed number of ends an extra end shall be played. The end which shall be played from where the last end ceased with the mat placed as per law V1 Para 1.
11. It is not necessary for the last player to deliver his last bowl in any end, but he must declare his intention not to play to his opponent, and this decision shall be irrevocable.
XI DEFAULT OF PLAYERS
1 The player at the moment of delivering the jack or his bowl shall have one foot entirely within the confines of the mat; the foot may be either in contact with, or over, the mat. Failure to observe this law constitutes "foot-faulting". Should a player infringe the law of foot-faulting, the umpire may, after having given a warning, have any further bowls delivered whilst foot-faulting stopped and declared dead. If the bowl has disturbed the head, the opponent shall have the option of either resetting the head, leaving the head as altered, or declaring it to be a dead end.
2 A player after delivering his bowl must not follow it up in such a manner as to obstruct the view of his opponent. If, after being cautioned he persists in doing so the opponent shall have the option of playing out the end or of declaring it a dead end.
3 The first two players in a Rink or the leads in pairs must remain at the mat end until all their bowls have been delivered. If, after being cautioned for contravening this law, a player repeats the offence, his opponents shall have the option of playing out the end or of declaring it a dead end.
4 A bowl played by mistake shall be replaced by the player's own bowl.
5 When a player has played before his turn the opponents may stop the bowl in its course, or allow it to remain where it has come to rest, or cause it to be played over again in its proper order. If it has moved either jack or bowl(s) the opponents shall have the option of declaring it a dead end.
6 No player shall change his bowls during the match except with the consent of the opposing party; if bowls are changed, they must be surrendered for inspection as required by law III. 5.
7 Any bowl delivered from the mat which comes to rest less than 14m measured from the centre of the mat line to the nearest point of the bowl shall be declared dead and shall be removed from the green.
XII INFLUENCES AFFECTING PLAY
1 Under no circumstances, other than provided in these laws, shall any extraneous object to assist a player be placed on the green, on the bank, on a bowl, or on the jack or elsewhere. An object may be displayed in the hand for the guidance of the player, but this may only be done from a position behind the lie of the jack.
2 No player shall be allowed to delay the play by leaving the Rink or team, unless with consent of his opponent, and then only for a period not exceeding ten minutes.
3 Where players leave the green due to heavy rain or adverse weather conditions without completing the end in play, the head should be left as it is. Should the person with responsibility for the green ask for the green to be cleared of bowls, that end will be declared dead and replayed.
4 If the mat is picked up by other than a player before the completion of an end, it shall be replaced as near as practicable to its original position.
1 Persons not engaged in the match shall be situated clear of and beyond the limits of the rink of play, and clear of the verges. They shall neither by word nor act, disturb or advise the players. This shall not apply to the advice given by a non-playing captain or in his absence, his delegated deputy of a team.
2 Betting or gambling in connection with any match or matches shall not be permitted or engaged in within the grounds of any affiliated club.
XIV PLAYERS WITH DISABILITIES
The wheelchair must be of the type approved for use on a bowling green, and shall be recognised as being an integral part of the player in instance when a jack or bowl(s) is displaced by the wheelchair. At the point of delivery of the jack or bowl, one wheel of the wheelchair must be on or over the mat. Failure to do so will constitute foot-faulting.
(2) Physical Disability
A bowler with a physical disability shall be permitted to use a support when delivering the jack or bowls, or walking/sitting on the green. Such support shall be suitably shod with only a smooth rubber base not less than 75mm in diameter, and may be placed on or adjacent to the mat or when sitting at least 2 metres behind the mat or head of bowls.
(3) Vision Impaired
The assistant to a vision impaired or blind bowler shall be allowed to advise verbally of the position of the jack and bowl(s) prior to and after the bowl(s) have come to rest, and shall be allowed to remain on the green at all times. “Also to aid a visually impaired bowler, a coloured marker may be held over the position of the Jack or bowl(s) up to the point of delivery”.
(iv) Each of the above shall conform to the Laws of the Game, and appropriate etiquette.
XV ALTERATIONS TO THE LAWS OF THE GAME
1 The foregoing laws shall only be altered or added to by the Annual General Meeting or Special General Meeting of the English Bowling Federation in accordance with the Constitution.
2 The English Bowling Federation National Executive Committee shall have the power to deal with all matters not covered by these laws.
LAWS OF THE GAME (INDOOR)
The Laws of the Game for indoor matches are the same as for outdoor matches except for the following, which are to be applied for all indoor English Bowling Federation matches.
The green shall form a rectangle or square of not less than 32 m and not more than 40.23 m long, with a rink width of not less than 4.57 m. It shall have a suitable playing surface which shall be level. The ends shall be provided with suitable boundaries in the form of a ditch and bank.
The green will be divided into spaces called rinks, not less than 4.57 m nor more than 5.79 m in width. The rinks shall be numbered consecutively and the numbers may be placed on the face of the bank, on top of the bank, or on the wall behind the bank, but shall always be on the centre line of the rink. The centre of the rink shall be clearly indicated. The four corners of the rink shall be indicated by markers, affixed to the face at the bank and flush therewith, or alternatively fixed on the bank not more than 102 mm back from the face thereof. These markers shall be of a material which cannot cause damage to bowls or jack. The marker shall not be more than 25.4 mm in width, and the centre of the marker shall be clearly marked by a thin black line Similar markers shall be fixed to the side banks to indicate a clear distance of 25 m from the end ditch on the line of play. An unobtrusive marker in the form of a T may be affixed to the carpet with the short leg of the T being parallel to and 2 m from the edge of the ditch, the junction indicating the centre line of the rink N.B. The above two laws are WIBC requirements, and represent ideal conditions. In Practice, these dimensions will probably be dictated by the indoor Bowls Centre which provides these facilities.
The jack shall be made of white or yellow earthenware or other material approved by the English Bowling Federation, and be of a diameter not less than 62.70 mm, nor more than 66.60 mm and shall weigh not less than 382 gm nor more than 453 g.